Title: Airport Barricade Jet Blast Resistance Test
Test Number: OTW AR10x96 – 043120141-2
Approval Date: 1 May 2014
The jet blast test procedure is designed to analyze the ability of an airfield construction barricade to withstand jet blast, prop wash, and surface wind gusts. "Low-profile" barricades are specified in US Air Force Engineering Technical Letter (ETL) 04-2 as being less than 12 inches in height.
The procedure is based on the Department of Defense Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) definition of jet blast resistant. The specified test is meant to become a qualification standard for acceptance testing for products wishing to identify themselves as “jet blast tested.” Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aviation Circular (AC) 150/5370-2F states barricades must be, “weighted or sturdily attached to the surface to prevent displacement from prop wash, jet blast, wing vortex, or other surface wind currents.” This test will set qualification standards for products wishing to identify themselves as compliant to FAA AC 150/5370-2F.
The items to be tested will be individual barricades, both empty of ballast and full of ballast. Additionally, interconnected barricades, if the device being tested allows for physical connection, will be tested, both empty of ballast and full of ballast.
The test equipment will be standard devices found at wind tunnel facilities. Facilities will need the capability to create constant wind strength at a minimum of 35 mph and a maximum of 70 mph.
Test conditions will be a minimum rating at 35 mph to meet the DoD UFC requirement of 35 mph jet blast exposure and incremental speeds of 55 mph and 70 mph with the barricade being oriented at exactly 90 degrees to the wind direction.
Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC): UFC 3-260-01 17 November 2008
AIRFIELD AND HELIPORT PLANNING AND DESIGN
U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS
NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND
AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER SUPPORT AGENCY (Preparing Activity)
UFC 3-260-01 SECTION 14 CONSTRUCTION PHASING PLAN AND OPERATIONAL SAFETY ON
AIRFIELDS DURING CONSTRUCTION
UFC 3-260-01 SECTION 14 B14-6 OPERATIONAL SAFETY ON THE AIRFIELD DURING
B14-6.1.3 Jet Blast.
You must also consider jet blast effects on personnel, equipment, facilities, and other aircraft. Maintain a distance behind aircraft sufficient to dissipate jet blast to 56 kilometers per hour (35 miles per hour) and temperatures to a maximum of 38 degrees Celsius (100 degrees Fahrenheit), or ambient, whichever is more, or provide jet blast protection with a deflector.
B14-6.1.4 Marking and Lighting
Threshold displacements and runway end relocation must be marked and lighted in accordance with AFI 32-1042, ETL 04-2, and UFC 3-535-01. Additionally, alternate temporary taxi routes on taxiways or aprons must be marked either with temporary paint markings or with frangible edge markers. They must also be lighted if they will be used during periods of darkness or during instrument flight rule operations. Closed taxiways or taxilanes on aprons must be marked or barricaded and normal lighting circuits disabled. Temporary obstructions, such as cranes, must be marked and lighted in accordance with FAA AC 70/7460-1. All hazardous areas (such as excavations or stockpiled materials) on the airfield must be delineated with lighted barricades on all exposed (visible or accessible) sides.
Inadequate or improper methods of marking temporarily closed airport operations areas, including improper and unsecured barricades.
Engineering Technical Letter (ETL) 04-2 (Change 1): Standard Airfield Pavement Marking Schemes July 19, 2004
ETL 04-2 5. Materials.
5.2.2. Barricades (Figure 16) or portable edge markers (Figure 21) can be used instead of pavement markings during construction or for expedient airfield markings, such as for a Minimum Operating Strip (MOS). Use frangible markers designed and constructed of materials that will collapse if struck by an aircraft. They must be colored to present a sharp contrast with the surrounding terrain.
9.2.1. Where pavement markings do not provide adequate definitions of closed or hazardous areas use reflective orange and white barricades or traffic cones with securely fastened amber-yellow or red lights. All barricades and traffic cones must be anchored or heavy enough to remain in place. Flashing lights must be at least five candelas effective intensity and flash at a rate of from 55 to 160 flashes per minute. Continuous burning lights must have an effective intensity of 10 candelas. Low-profile barricades are the preferred method for marking construction areas. Examples are shown in Figure 16. Lighted barricades used in close proximity should all be the same type (flash rate) and color.
9.2.2. Place barricades at maximum intervals of 15.2 meters (50 feet) and use dual barricades and lights on corners and ends.
AC No: 150/5370-2E
Subject: OPERATIONAL SAFETY ON AIRPORTS DURING CONSTRUCTION
Date: 1/17/03 Initiated by: AAS-300
U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration
Director, Office of Airport Safety and Standards
CHAPTER 3. SAFETY STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES
Section 3. Other Construction Marking and Lighting Activities
3-9. HAZARD MARKING AND LIGHTING.
a. Nonmovement areas. Indicate construction locations on nonmovement areas in which no part of an aircraft may enter by using barricades that are marked with diagonal, alternating orange and white stripes. Barricades may be supplemented with alternating range and white flags at least 20 by 20 inches (50 by 50 cm) square and made and installed so they are always in an extended position, properly oriented, and securely fastened to eliminate jet engine ingestion. Such barricades may be many different shapes and made from various materials, including railroad ties, sawhorses, jersey barriers, or barrels. During reduced visibility or night hours, supplement the barricades with red lights, either flashing or steadyburning, which should meet the luminance requirements of the State Highway Department (yellow lights are not acceptable after October 1, 2004). The intensity of the lights and spacing for barricade flags and lights must adequately and without ambiguity delineate the hazardous area.
b. Movement areas. Use orange traffic cones; red lights, either flashing or steady-burning, which should meet the luminance requirements of the State Highway Department (yellow lights are not acceptable after October 1, 2004); collapsible barricades marked with diagonal, alternating orange and white stripes; and/or signs to separate all construction/maintenance areas from the movement area. All barricades, temporary markers, and other objects placed and left in safety areas associated with any open runway, taxiway, or taxilane must be as low as possible to the ground; of low mass; easily collapsible upon contact with an aircraft or any of its components; and weighted or sturdily attached to the surface to prevent displacement from prop wash, jet blast, wing vortex, or other surface wind currents. If affixed to the surface, they must be frangible at grade level or as low as possible, but not to exceed 3 inches (7.6cm) above the ground. Do not use nonfrangible hazard markings, such as concrete barriers and/or metaldrum- type barricades, in aircraft movement areas. Do not use railroad ties on runways. Use highly reflective barriers with flashing or steady- burning red lights to barricade taxiways leading to closed runways. Evaluate all operating factors when determining how to mark temporary closures that can last from 10 to 15 minutes to a much longer period of time. However, we strongly recommend that, even for closures of relatively short duration, major taxiway/runway intersections be identified with barricades spaced no greater than 20 feet (6m) apart. Mark the barricades with a flashing or steady-burning red light. At a minimum, use a single barricade placed on the taxiway centerline.
Parameters will be a pass/fail at exposure to 35 mph where pass is no movement of the device after exposure to the 35 mph wind for 2 minutes. The 45 mph speed will be witnessed, and any movement noted. This will be repeated at 70 mph, again for 2 minutes and results noted.
Test Data and Results:
Title: Airport Barricade Jet Blast Resistance Test
Test Number: OTW AR10x96 – 043120141-2 Approval Date: 1 May 2014
Test Specimen: OTW Model AR10x96 V2
Material: Blow Molded HDPE
Weight Empty: 19 Pounds
Weight Full with Water Ballast: 260 pounds
- 10 inches tall
- 10 Inches wide
- 96 inches in length
- Interconnected length 84 inches
- 2 each 20”x20” flags attached
- 2 each 360 degree warning lights attached
35 MPH Result:
- No movement of barricade at 35 mph for more than 2 minutes.
45 MPH Result: No movement noted.
70 MPH Result: No movement noted.
Independent Test Conductor:
766 Depot Drive, Suite 1
Ogden, Utah 84404
This test was conducted according to these test procedures on May 1, 2014.
Conducted by Doug Tinney Darko Tehnologies, Manager.